The World of the Throne of Glass book series has many gods, though often people will worship a particular deity depending on who they are or their long-term situation. The people of the world of Throne of Glass believed that the gods and goddesses watched over them, and at one point thought to have died or abandoned the world, when magic fell.
Anneith is the Lady of Wise Things, a very clever goddess and is also the goddess of slow deaths. It can be assumed that Sarah J. Maas named her this after 'Neith' the Egyptian goddess of wisdom and hunting. However, by calling her 'Anneith' instead of 'Neith', her name almost becomes an anagram of 'Athena', the Greek goddess of wisdom and war. Certainly, Anneith's behavior as both a goddess of slow deaths and wise things is most likely based on both Neith and Athena. (Elide)
Deanna is the goddess of hunting, maidenhood and the moon. Her symbol is the golden arrow. She is sister and rival to Mala Fire-Bringer. Sarah J. Maas most likely based her off 'Diana' the Roman goddess who - much like the Greek goddess Artemis - was the protector of virgins, the hunting goddess and also a moon goddess in later times. She possesed Aelin in the fight against the ilken at Skull's Bay. (Aelin was gifted her arrow on the Yulemas Ball, so perhaps she represents both Mala and Dean).
Little is known about Hellas except that he is known as the "dark god", the god of violent death, ruler of the burning healm of the Underworld. This may mean he has similarities to the Greek god Hades. Hades was the ruler of the Underworld in Greek mythology. 'Hellas' was the original name for the land of Greece which is famous for its Polytheist civilization. Numerous times in the series, 'Hellas' or 'The land of Hellas' is used in a similar way to how people normally say 'Hell', referring to the Christian afterlife where bad people are punished for their sins. This may mean that Hellas may serve a similar function to the Devil or to the Norse goddess Hel. (Lorcan)
Little is known about Lani except that she is the goddess of dreams.
Lumas is the firstborn of the Great Goddess. He is known as the Lord of the Gods and God of Love. His birth is celebrated in the Yulemas, described with glistening wings, he is said to be the one to bring love and union to Erilea after the Chaos brought by the Gates of Wyrd. Lumas is often associated with 'light' and his name probably stems from the English verb 'Illuminate'. (Dorian)
Mala is the Sun Goddess, Lady of Light, Learning and Fire. Her sacred animals were the Sun Stags that Brannon brought to Erilea and were later adopted as the royal symbol of Terrasen. (Aelin)
Though not named the sea god presumably rules over the vast oceans of the world and it's creatures. This god has a temple built in Rifthold near the Avery. The Sea God is also the God of Oaths. (Rolfe?)
Silba is the Goddess of Healing and Healers. (Yrene, character from the Assassin and the Healer or Sorscha, Dorian's former lover who was beheaded)
God of Truth
The god of Truth is also known as a Sin-Eater. Little is known about this god other than how he was worshipped. His temple is located deep beneath Shadow Market of Rifthold and is built nearly entirely of human bones. The bones are carved with the confessions of peoples sins they committed in life. (Chaol)
This Goddess is worshiped by the Ironteeth Witches. Sarah J. Maas most likely adapted her from the Greek goddess Hecate who was often descriped has having three faces and was often associated with magic and witchcraft. She has three heads/faces representing each iron teeth clan: Maiden is the blueblood, mother being the blackbeaks and crone representing the yellowlegs. (Manon)
Celtic lore also has a three goddess system. These also have one youth, middle age, and old age.
Temis is known as the Goddess of Wild Things and a goddess who never forgets the caged animals of the world. She had a small temple in Oakwald forest before it was destroyed in a fight between Aelin Ashryver Galathynius and Manon Blackbeak. (Lysandra)
Farnor is the God of War. Duke Perrington received his gift, a silver sword, at the Yulemas Day Service in Throne of Glass. (Valg Prince? As he was in Perrington when the latter was gifted with the sword).
Not a goddess, but as powerful as one. She is the original entrant from the "other realm", who wants the keys for herself so she never has to go back to that other realm. Some theories suggest that she has connections with the valg, because in Empire of Storms amd Queen of Shadows she didn't seem alarmed at all by Erawan declaring war. Too calm...